cells

Phase IIb BRaVac study enrolling patients

RhoVac 21 January 2020 Update
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RhoVac

Phase IIb BRaVac study enrolling patients

Company update

Pharma & biotech

21 January 2020

Price

SEK13.54

Market cap

SEK257m

Net cash (SEKm) at end Q319

129.0

Shares in issue

19.0

Free float

85%

Code

RHOV

Primary exchange

Spotlight Stockholm

Secondary exchange

N/A

Share price performance

%

1m

3m

12m

Abs

8.3

(15.3)

(67.9)

Rel (local)

6.7

(18.3)

(69.0)

52-week high/low

SEK40.3

SEK12.5

Business description

RhoVac is an immunotherapy company listed on the Spotlight stock market in Sweden, with a 100%-owned subsidiary in Denmark. It is developing a peptide-based immunotherapy, RV001, which aims to train the immune system to specifically target cancer cells with metastatic potential. This is a novel approach that could have utility across a range of cancer settings.

Next events

Q419 results

11 February 2020

Interim results from the Phase IIb study

H121

Start of exploratory clinical study in other cancer indication

2020

Updates on partnering process

2020/2021

Analyst

Jonas Peciulis

+44 (0)20 3077 5728

RhoVac is a research client of Edison Investment Research Limited

RhoVac’s Phase IIb BRaVac study with RV001 (a cancer immunotherapy targeting RhoC) is up and running with patients being recruited since November 2019. In total, over 175 prostate cancer patients, who experienced biochemical failure after a curative therapy (surgery or radiation therapy), are expected to be enrolled by the end of Q320 in six European countries as well as the US. The primary endpoint is time to PSA doubling or clinical progression and key interim results are expected in H221 (the treatment part of the study), with follow up data due in H222. Besides the BRaVac study progress updates, RhoVac released more supportive immunological data from the completed Phase I/II trial, and, unexpectedly, an unrelated group of researchers published a detailed review of RhoC as a target. Our valuation stays virtually unchanged at SEK888.6m or SEK46.7/share.

Year end

Revenue (SEKm)

PBT*
(SEKm)

EPS*
(SEK)

DPS
(SEK)

P/E
(x)

Yield
(%)

12/17

0.0

(12.9)

(1.34)

0.0

N/A

N/A

12/18

0.0

(20.2)

(1.95)

0.0

N/A

N/A

12/19e

0.0

(54.6)

(3.27)

0.0

N/A

N/A

12/20e

0.0

(59.4)

(2.71)

0.0

N/A

N/A

Note: *PBT and EPS are normalised, excluding amortisation of acquired intangibles, exceptional items and share-based payments.

Additional immunological data from Phase I/II

Final long-term follow up results from the Phase I/II study were announced in July 2019. No major side effects were reported after 12 months of treatment with RV001 and 18 out of 21 (86%) evaluable patients showed an immune response (measured by IFNγ ELIspot analysis). The immune response was still detectable in all 18 patients at three-, six- and nine-month follow ups. At the 12-month follow up, 17 out of 18 patients still showed significant immunological response.

More evidence supporting RV001 immunogenicity

RhoVac is collaborating with the University of Tübingen on the immunological studies and in November 2019 the company further reported that the treatment with RV001 was shown to activate both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. CD8+ (cytotoxic) Tcells are traditionally considered to be the main type of lymphocytes that can directly attack the cancer, but sufficient evidence indicates that CD4+ T-cells (helpers) also play a crucial role by supporting long-term tumour specific memory. There is also evidence that CD4+ T-cells themselves can attack the tumour cells directly via T-cell receptor (TCR) and MHC class II interaction, and indirectly via the release of immunomodulatory molecules (Haabeth et al, 2014).

Valuation: SEK888.6m or SEK46.7/share

We keep our RhoVac valuation virtually unchanged at SEK888.6m or SEK46.7/share, as rolling the model forward was offset by a lower cash position. We maintain other assumptions in our rNPV model. Near- to mid-term share price drivers are associated with the ongoing Phase IIb BRaVac study. Key interim results are expected in H221, while follow up data should be ready in H222. Other significant R&D events include the start of an exploratory clinical study in other cancer indications (2020), and any potential updates on the partnering process.

Third-party review of RhoC target

In July 2019, Thomas et al published an article ‘RhoC: a fascinating journey from a cytoskeletal organizer to a Cancer stem cell therapeutic target’, which to our knowledge is one of the most comprehensive and up to date reviews of RhoC. RhoVac’s RV001 is a cancer immunotherapy comprised of a 20 amino acid fraction of the protein RhoC. The expectation is that it will elicit an immune response against RhoC, which is highly expressed in cells with metastatic potential.

RhoC belongs to the Rho family of proteins and is responsible for cytoskeletal organisation and protein structures in the cells that are involved in multiple cellular functions, including motility and division. In cancer, RhoC is responsible for enhanced migration, invasion and metastasis. Existing data show that it is essential for cancer metastasis (Hakem et al, 2005), which is the core rationale in how RhoVac is developing its vaccine (prevention of prostate cancer spreading). Our more detailed review of RhoC as a target is in our initiation report.

An increasing amount of data show that RhoC has a rather diverse role in various aspects of cancer progression (summarised in Exhibit 1). In various models, RhoC significantly contributed to cancer initiation, proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, intravasation and metastasis (Thomas et al, 2019). We described the metastatic cascade in our initiation report.

Exhibit 1: RhoC has diverse role in cancer progression

Two other members of the Rho family are RhoA and RhoB, however, only RhoC is expressed at significantly higher levels in metastatic tumours than in primary tumours (Suwa et al, 1998). RhoVac is focusing on prostate cancer as its primary indication, however, as Thomas et al describe, RhoC’s importance in cancer spreading was implicated in many other cancers, including breast, skin, ovarian, liver, head and neck cancers and several others. RhoVac has a clear strategy to complete the ongoing Phase IIb trial and then to out-license the asset. To increase the attractiveness of RV001’s data package, however, the company plans to conduct one or more small exploratory clinical trials in other cancer indications.

We understand that melanoma could be one of the potential indications for the exploratory trial, although the final decision has not been made. From Thomas et al’s review it is clear that melanoma is one of the better investigated cancers with respect to RhoC’s involvement in the malignant process. Various authors showed that:

RhoC is important in the melanoma metastasis process.

In a mouse model, inhibition of a factor downstream to RhoC led to decreased lung metastases.

Statins (popular cholesterol lowering drugs) are able to reduce RhoC activation via HMG-CoA inhibition and were shown to be potentially useful as a primary prophylaxis for melanoma to inhibit invasion and metastasis (Collisson et al, 2003).

Our view

Although the final decision has not been made, existing knowledge supports investigating melanoma in the exploratory trial. It is a rather crowded field, but we believe that RhoVac’s primary intention is to gather an attractive data package with proof-of-concept of the mechanism of action that can be used in out-licensing discussions. In this regard, it makes sense to make a small investment in the indication where RV001 can be expected to generate the most interesting data.

Potential clinical applications

Thomas et al in their review also present an interesting discussion about potential therapeutic applications of targeting RhoC. Highlights include:

RhoC has been shown to contribute to therapy resistance in some tumours, therefore, inhibition of it could be part of a combination therapy.

Specifically in prostate cancer, RhoC may have a role in the of hormone therapy resistance. Hormone therapy (eg anti-androgens, LH treatment, inhibitors such as Zytiga and Xtandi) is the mainstay treatment for advanced prostate cancer, resistance to which leads to poor outcomes.

Wenandy et al suggested that ‘RhoC may serve as an important and widely applicable target for anti-cancer immunotherapeutic strategies’, which is what RhoVac is doing.

As mentioned, prophylactic treatment of primary melanoma metastasis with statins, which due to downstream effects reduces the activity of RhoC, led to inhibition of invasion and metastasis. This effect was also seen in head and neck cancer.

Prolonged use of statins was linked to reduction of oesophageal cancer.

In another study, statins in combination with celecoxib (anti-inflammatory, selective COX-2 inhibitor) induced colorectal cancer cell death in vitro.

Treatment of breast cancer cell lines in vitro with anti-RhoC siRNA led to decreased invasion, motility and migration.

Our view

While a number of reports from various parties describe RhoC as a potential target, to our knowledge there are no ongoing clinical trials testing therapies that target RhoC. This implies a relatively high RV001 technology risk, although it is true with virtually all pioneering approaches. In terms of indication choice (prostate cancer, melanoma), a large existing body of literature supports RhoVac’s current R&D strategy.

Financials and valuation

RhoVac reports no income, while the operating spend was SEK41.9m in 9M19, up from SEK13.1m in 9M18, mainly because of the preparations and initiation of the Phase IIb study. We already expected operating expenditure to increase as the Phase IIb accelerates. We have only slightly increased our operating loss estimate to SEK55m in 2019, but keep our SEK60m estimate in 2020 unchanged. RhoVac received SEK6.7m in tax credits in 9M19. The reported 9M19 cash position was SEK129m in cash and no debt, which should be sufficient to finish the ongoing Phase IIb study.

Our RhoVac valuation is virtually unchanged at SEK888.6m or SEK46.7/share, as rolling the model forward was offset by a lower cash position. We maintain the other assumptions in our risk-adjusted NPV model. Our valuation is based on RV001 in prostate cancer only, specifically in patients with biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy.

According to our model, a successful Phase IIb outcome would result in RhoVac’s rNPV increasing to SEK2.05bn or SEK107.1/share (not including the net cash estimate). This would include setting the probability of success at 40% as a Phase III-ready asset and changing the date of the valuation to the start of 2022, but leaving all other inputs unchanged.

Exhibit 2: Sum-of-the-parts RhoVac valuation

Product

Launch

Peak sales
(US$m)

Unrisked NPV (SEKm)

Technology probability (%)

rNPV
(SEKm)

rNPV/share (SEK)

RV001 – prostate cancer

2027

888

3,451.1

15%

759.5

39.9

Net cash at end-Q319

129.0

100%

129.0

6.8

Valuation

3,580.1

888.6

46.7

Source: Edison Investment Research. Note: WACC = 12.5% for product valuations.

Exhibit 3: Financial summary

SEK'000s

 

2017

2018

2019e

2020e

December

IFRS

IFRS

IFRS

IFRS

PROFIT & LOSS

Revenue

 

 

0

0

0

0

Cost of Sales

0

0

0

0

Gross Profit

0

0

0

0

Research and development

(12,243)

(19,154)

(55,000)

(60,000)

EBITDA

 

 

(12,857)

(20,148)

(55,000)

(60,000)

Operating Profit (before amort. and except.)

 

 

(12,857)

(20,148)

(55,000)

(60,000)

Intangible Amortisation

0

0

0

0

Exceptionals

0

0

0

0

Other

0

0

0

0

Operating Profit

(12,857)

(20,148)

(55,000)

(60,000)

Net Interest

(5)

(64)

382

577

Profit Before Tax (norm)

 

 

(12,861)

(20,212)

(54,618)

(59,423)

Profit Before Tax (reported)

 

 

(12,861)

(20,212)

(54,618)

(59,423)

Tax

1,911

2,936

7,900

7,900

Profit After Tax (norm)

(10,950)

(17,276)

(46,718)

(51,523)

Profit After Tax (reported)

(10,950)

(17,276)

(46,718)

(51,523)

Average Number of Shares Outstanding (m)

8.2

8.9

14.3

19.0

EPS - normalised (SEK)

 

 

(1.34)

(1.95)

(3.27)

(2.71)

EPS - normalised and fully diluted (SEK)

 

 

(1.34)

(1.95)

(3.27)

(2.71)

EPS - (reported) (SEK)

 

 

(1.34)

(1.95)

(3.27)

(2.71)

Dividend per share (SEK)

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Gross Margin (%)

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

EBITDA Margin (%)

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Operating Margin (before GW and except.) (%)

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

BALANCE SHEET

Fixed Assets

 

 

2,342

2,848

2,848

2,848

Intangible Assets

2,342

2,848

2,848

2,848

Tangible Assets

0

0

0

0

Investments

0

0

0

0

Current Assets

 

 

13,598

20,372

127,061

75,538

Stocks

0

0

0

0

Debtors

1,141

240

240

240

Cash

9,428

16,060

116,578

65,055

Other

3,029

4,071

10,243

10,243

Current Liabilities

 

 

(2,177)

(4,380)

(3,055)

(3,055)

Creditors

(2,177)

(4,380)

(3,055)

(3,055)

Short term borrowings

0

0

0

0

Long Term Liabilities

 

 

(505)

(596)

(613)

(613)

Long term borrowings

0

0

0

0

Other long term liabilities

(505)

(596)

(613)

(613)

Net Assets

 

 

13,258

18,245

126,241

74,718

CASH FLOW

Operating Cash Flow

 

 

(13,853)

(17,097)

(62,479)

(60,000)

Net Interest

(6)

(64)

382

577

Tax

1,945

2,229

7,900

7,900

Capex

0

0

0

0

Acquisitions/disposals

0

0

0

0

Financing

1,182

21,756

154,714

0

Other

(241)

(191)

0

0

Dividends

0

0

0

0

Net Cash Flow

(10,973)

6,632

100,517

(51,523)

Opening net debt/(cash)

 

 

(20,401)

(9,428)

(16,060)

(116,578)

HP finance leases initiated

0

0

0

0

Other

0

(0)

0

0

Closing net debt/(cash)

 

 

(9,428)

(16,060)

(116,578)

(65,055)

Source: RhoVac accounts, Edison Investment Research


General disclaimer and copyright

This report has been commissioned by RhoVac and prepared and issued by Edison, in consideration of a fee payable by RhoVac. Edison Investment Research standard fees are £49,500 pa for the production and broad dissemination of a detailed note (Outlook) following by regular (typically quarterly) update notes. Fees are paid upfront in cash without recourse. Edison may seek additional fees for the provision of roadshows and related IR services for the client but does not get remunerated for any investment banking services. We never take payment in stock, options or warrants for any of our services.

Accuracy of content: All information used in the publication of this report has been compiled from publicly available sources that are believed to be reliable, however we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this report and have not sought for this information to be independently verified. Opinions contained in this report represent those of the research department of Edison at the time of publication. Forward-looking information or statements in this report contain information that is based on assumptions, forecasts of future results, estimates of amounts not yet determinable, and therefore involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of their subject matter to be materially different from current expectations.

Exclusion of Liability: To the fullest extent allowed by law, Edison shall not be liable for any direct, indirect or consequential losses, loss of profits, damages, costs or expenses incurred or suffered by you arising out or in connection with the access to, use of or reliance on any information contained on this note.

No personalised advice: The information that we provide should not be construed in any manner whatsoever as, personalised advice. Also, the information provided by us should not be construed by any subscriber or prospective subscriber as Edison’s solicitation to effect, or attempt to effect, any transaction in a security. The securities described in the report may not be eligible for sale in all jurisdictions or to certain categories of investors.

Investment in securities mentioned: Edison has a restrictive policy relating to personal dealing and conflicts of interest. Edison Group does not conduct any investment business and, accordingly, does not itself hold any positions in the securities mentioned in this report. However, the respective directors, officers, employees and contractors of Edison may have a position in any or related securities mentioned in this report, subject to Edison's policies on personal dealing and conflicts of interest.

Copyright: Copyright 2020 Edison Investment Research Limited (Edison). All rights reserved FTSE International Limited (“FTSE”) © FTSE 2020. “FTSE®” is a trade mark of the London Stock Exchange Group companies and is used by FTSE International Limited under license. All rights in the FTSE indices and/or FTSE ratings vest in FTSE and/or its licensors. Neither FTSE nor its licensors accept any liability for any errors or omissions in the FTSE indices and/or FTSE ratings or underlying data. No further distribution of FTSE Data is permitted without FTSE’s express written consent.

Australia

Edison Investment Research Pty Ltd (Edison AU) is the Australian subsidiary of Edison. Edison AU is a Corporate Authorised Representative (1252501) of Crown Wealth Group Pty Ltd who holds an Australian Financial Services Licence (Number: 494274). This research is issued in Australia by Edison AU and any access to it, is intended only for "wholesale clients" within the meaning of the Corporations Act 2001 of Australia. Any advice given by Edison AU is general advice only and does not take into account your personal circumstances, needs or objectives. You should, before acting on this advice, consider the appropriateness of the advice, having regard to your objectives, financial situation and needs. If our advice relates to the acquisition, or possible acquisition, of a particular financial product you should read any relevant Product Disclosure Statement or like instrument.

New Zealand

The research in this document is intended for New Zealand resident professional financial advisers or brokers (for use in their roles as financial advisers or brokers) and habitual investors who are “wholesale clients” for the purpose of the Financial Advisers Act 2008 (FAA) (as described in sections 5(c) (1)(a), (b) and (c) of the FAA). This is not a solicitation or inducement to buy, sell, subscribe, or underwrite any securities mentioned or in the topic of this document. For the purpose of the FAA, the content of this report is of a general nature, is intended as a source of general information only and is not intended to constitute a recommendation or opinion in relation to acquiring or disposing (including refraining from acquiring or disposing) of securities. The distribution of this document is not a “personalised service” and, to the extent that it contains any financial advice, is intended only as a “class service” provided by Edison within the meaning of the FAA (i.e. without taking into account the particular financial situation or goals of any person). As such, it should not be relied upon in making an investment decision.

United Kingdom

This document is prepared and provided by Edison for information purposes only and should not be construed as an offer or solicitation for investment in any securities mentioned or in the topic of this document. A marketing communication under FCA Rules, this document has not been prepared in accordance with the legal requirements designed to promote the independence of investment research and is not subject to any prohibition on dealing ahead of the dissemination of investment research.

This Communication is being distributed in the United Kingdom and is directed only at (i) persons having professional experience in matters relating to investments, i.e. investment professionals within the meaning of Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005, as amended (the "FPO") (ii) high net-worth companies, unincorporated associations or other bodies within the meaning of Article 49 of the FPO and (iii) persons to whom it is otherwise lawful to distribute it. The investment or investment activity to which this document relates is available only to such persons. It is not intended that this document be distributed or passed on, directly or indirectly, to any other class of persons and in any event and under no circumstances should persons of any other description rely on or act upon the contents of this document.

This Communication is being supplied to you solely for your information and may not be reproduced by, further distributed to or published in whole or in part by, any other person.

United States

Edison relies upon the "publishers' exclusion" from the definition of investment adviser under Section 202(a)(11) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and corresponding state securities laws. This report is a bona fide publication of general and regular circulation offering impersonal investment-related advice, not tailored to a specific investment portfolio or the needs of current and/or prospective subscribers. As such, Edison does not offer or provide personal advice and the research provided is for informational purposes only. No mention of a particular security in this report constitutes a recommendation to buy, sell or hold that or any security, or that any particular security, portfolio of securities, transaction or investment strategy is suitable for any specific person.

Frankfurt +49 (0)69 78 8076 960

Schumannstrasse 34b

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Germany

London +44 (0)20 3077 5700

280 High Holborn

London, WC1V 7EE

United Kingdom

New York +1 646 653 7026

1,185 Avenue of the Americas

3rd Floor, New York, NY 10036

United States of America

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Level 4, Office 1205

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Frankfurt +49 (0)69 78 8076 960

Schumannstrasse 34b

60325 Frankfurt

Germany

London +44 (0)20 3077 5700

280 High Holborn

London, WC1V 7EE

United Kingdom

New York +1 646 653 7026

1,185 Avenue of the Americas

3rd Floor, New York, NY 10036

United States of America

Sydney +61 (0)2 8249 8342

Level 4, Office 1205

95 Pitt Street, Sydney

NSW 2000, Australia

General disclaimer and copyright

This report has been commissioned by RhoVac and prepared and issued by Edison, in consideration of a fee payable by RhoVac. Edison Investment Research standard fees are £49,500 pa for the production and broad dissemination of a detailed note (Outlook) following by regular (typically quarterly) update notes. Fees are paid upfront in cash without recourse. Edison may seek additional fees for the provision of roadshows and related IR services for the client but does not get remunerated for any investment banking services. We never take payment in stock, options or warrants for any of our services.

Accuracy of content: All information used in the publication of this report has been compiled from publicly available sources that are believed to be reliable, however we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this report and have not sought for this information to be independently verified. Opinions contained in this report represent those of the research department of Edison at the time of publication. Forward-looking information or statements in this report contain information that is based on assumptions, forecasts of future results, estimates of amounts not yet determinable, and therefore involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of their subject matter to be materially different from current expectations.

Exclusion of Liability: To the fullest extent allowed by law, Edison shall not be liable for any direct, indirect or consequential losses, loss of profits, damages, costs or expenses incurred or suffered by you arising out or in connection with the access to, use of or reliance on any information contained on this note.

No personalised advice: The information that we provide should not be construed in any manner whatsoever as, personalised advice. Also, the information provided by us should not be construed by any subscriber or prospective subscriber as Edison’s solicitation to effect, or attempt to effect, any transaction in a security. The securities described in the report may not be eligible for sale in all jurisdictions or to certain categories of investors.

Investment in securities mentioned: Edison has a restrictive policy relating to personal dealing and conflicts of interest. Edison Group does not conduct any investment business and, accordingly, does not itself hold any positions in the securities mentioned in this report. However, the respective directors, officers, employees and contractors of Edison may have a position in any or related securities mentioned in this report, subject to Edison's policies on personal dealing and conflicts of interest.

Copyright: Copyright 2020 Edison Investment Research Limited (Edison). All rights reserved FTSE International Limited (“FTSE”) © FTSE 2020. “FTSE®” is a trade mark of the London Stock Exchange Group companies and is used by FTSE International Limited under license. All rights in the FTSE indices and/or FTSE ratings vest in FTSE and/or its licensors. Neither FTSE nor its licensors accept any liability for any errors or omissions in the FTSE indices and/or FTSE ratings or underlying data. No further distribution of FTSE Data is permitted without FTSE’s express written consent.

Australia

Edison Investment Research Pty Ltd (Edison AU) is the Australian subsidiary of Edison. Edison AU is a Corporate Authorised Representative (1252501) of Crown Wealth Group Pty Ltd who holds an Australian Financial Services Licence (Number: 494274). This research is issued in Australia by Edison AU and any access to it, is intended only for "wholesale clients" within the meaning of the Corporations Act 2001 of Australia. Any advice given by Edison AU is general advice only and does not take into account your personal circumstances, needs or objectives. You should, before acting on this advice, consider the appropriateness of the advice, having regard to your objectives, financial situation and needs. If our advice relates to the acquisition, or possible acquisition, of a particular financial product you should read any relevant Product Disclosure Statement or like instrument.

New Zealand

The research in this document is intended for New Zealand resident professional financial advisers or brokers (for use in their roles as financial advisers or brokers) and habitual investors who are “wholesale clients” for the purpose of the Financial Advisers Act 2008 (FAA) (as described in sections 5(c) (1)(a), (b) and (c) of the FAA). This is not a solicitation or inducement to buy, sell, subscribe, or underwrite any securities mentioned or in the topic of this document. For the purpose of the FAA, the content of this report is of a general nature, is intended as a source of general information only and is not intended to constitute a recommendation or opinion in relation to acquiring or disposing (including refraining from acquiring or disposing) of securities. The distribution of this document is not a “personalised service” and, to the extent that it contains any financial advice, is intended only as a “class service” provided by Edison within the meaning of the FAA (i.e. without taking into account the particular financial situation or goals of any person). As such, it should not be relied upon in making an investment decision.

United Kingdom

This document is prepared and provided by Edison for information purposes only and should not be construed as an offer or solicitation for investment in any securities mentioned or in the topic of this document. A marketing communication under FCA Rules, this document has not been prepared in accordance with the legal requirements designed to promote the independence of investment research and is not subject to any prohibition on dealing ahead of the dissemination of investment research.

This Communication is being distributed in the United Kingdom and is directed only at (i) persons having professional experience in matters relating to investments, i.e. investment professionals within the meaning of Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005, as amended (the "FPO") (ii) high net-worth companies, unincorporated associations or other bodies within the meaning of Article 49 of the FPO and (iii) persons to whom it is otherwise lawful to distribute it. The investment or investment activity to which this document relates is available only to such persons. It is not intended that this document be distributed or passed on, directly or indirectly, to any other class of persons and in any event and under no circumstances should persons of any other description rely on or act upon the contents of this document.

This Communication is being supplied to you solely for your information and may not be reproduced by, further distributed to or published in whole or in part by, any other person.

United States

Edison relies upon the "publishers' exclusion" from the definition of investment adviser under Section 202(a)(11) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and corresponding state securities laws. This report is a bona fide publication of general and regular circulation offering impersonal investment-related advice, not tailored to a specific investment portfolio or the needs of current and/or prospective subscribers. As such, Edison does not offer or provide personal advice and the research provided is for informational purposes only. No mention of a particular security in this report constitutes a recommendation to buy, sell or hold that or any security, or that any particular security, portfolio of securities, transaction or investment strategy is suitable for any specific person.

Frankfurt +49 (0)69 78 8076 960

Schumannstrasse 34b

60325 Frankfurt

Germany

London +44 (0)20 3077 5700

280 High Holborn

London, WC1V 7EE

United Kingdom

New York +1 646 653 7026

1,185 Avenue of the Americas

3rd Floor, New York, NY 10036

United States of America

Sydney +61 (0)2 8249 8342

Level 4, Office 1205

95 Pitt Street, Sydney

NSW 2000, Australia

Frankfurt +49 (0)69 78 8076 960

Schumannstrasse 34b

60325 Frankfurt

Germany

London +44 (0)20 3077 5700

280 High Holborn

London, WC1V 7EE

United Kingdom

New York +1 646 653 7026

1,185 Avenue of the Americas

3rd Floor, New York, NY 10036

United States of America

Sydney +61 (0)2 8249 8342

Level 4, Office 1205

95 Pitt Street, Sydney

NSW 2000, Australia

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