|Shipping: ammonia||By combining hydrogen with nitrogen to create ammonia (NH3) and then liquifying (-33oC), density can be significantly increased||High density means low cost to ship. If ammonia can be used directly, conversion losses are only 7–18%. Some transmission infrastructure already established||Round trip conversion losses if a pure form of hydrogen is required (such as for fuel cell vehicles) are 14–36%. Toxic||Potentially suitable, particularly over longer distances and where re-conversion is not needed.|
|Shipping: other LOHCs||Hydrogen density can be significantly increased by combining with a ‘carrier’ molecule such as toluene||Can be transported as liquids without any cooling and therefore very low shipping costs. Could use adapted existing oil tankers||High conversion losses currently (35–40%). Potentially toxic. Multiple solutions still being trialled||Potentially suitable but technology still in its early stages|
|Shipping: liquid hydrogen||Hydrogen liquifies at -253oC, increasing its density by 800 times||Liquefaction significantly reduces transport costs/unit. Could use a similar technology to existing LNG vessels. Delivers pure hydrogen||Liquefaction and maintaining a low temperature consume significant amounts of energy (25–35%) & a certain proportion is lost as boil-off||Potentially suitable but highly capital intensive. First liquid hydrogen ships expected in 2022|
|Shipping: compressed hydrogen||Compressing hydrogen to 250 bar significantly increases the volume of hydrogen that can be stored||No conversion losses and only modest technical challenges to store compressed hydrogen. Delivers pure hydrogen||Relatively high shipping costs per unit reduces cost efficiency with distance||Potentially suitable. Type approval in principle from the American Bureau of Shipping. Construction of pilot ship expected to begin shortly|
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Understanding the role of green hydrogen: Good in niches
- Green hydrogen is likely to require policy support, particularly in the near term, to stimulate end-demand and bridge the cost gap. Key policy tools are likely to include subsidies, deployment targets, carbon taxes and co-ordinated infrastructure development.
- Adoption is likely to focus on applications where its unique properties enable it to provide ‘system value’, advantages in range or functionality that cannot be provided by other low-carbon alternatives. The inherent losses and high cost make its widespread use a relatively inefficient and expensive way to supply energy in general.
Matching demand in Japan and South Korea…
…with low-cost supply in Australia
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